There is another version with Italian subtitles.
The present mtDNA study on human remains of fourteen archaeological sites from Cantabria, Basque Country and Navarra provided a diachronic overview from Paleolithic–Mesolithic to Late Antiquity period of some communities settled in the Cantabrian fringe. Ancient DNA studies in European human remains indicated a genetic discontinuity between the hunter–gatherers and later populations. However, some of the mtDNA lineages found in the Cantabrian fringe in Paleolithic–Mesolithic times persist in present-day populations.
The mtDNA variability observed in hunter–gatherers and farmers in Europe denoted a complex pattern for the Neolithic transition, occurring along several different routes into and across Europe. The mtDNA lineages found in the Cantabrian fringe indicated that the dispersion of Neolithic farmers had a different genetic impact in this area with respect to Central and Mediterranean regions of Europe. The differences in mtDNA variability were also apparent after the Neolithic, as shown by the genetic distance between the Chalcolithic populations from the Cantabrian fringe and the Bell Beaker Culture (BBC) populations of Central Europe.
|Annotations by Maju: red: El Mirón (new sequence), orange: other Paleolithic or Epipaleolithic sequences|
|Fig. 2. Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS), based on a Fst genetic matrix calculated from the frequency distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups of different populations [Neolithics (green), Chalcolithics (purple), Late Antiquity (red), present-day Near East and northern Caucasus (orange) and Europeans (black)]. Abbreviations for present-day populations in Europe: Eastern Mediterranean (MdE), Central Mediterranean (MdC), Western Mediterranean (MdW), Northeast Europe (NE), NortheCentral Europe (NC), Northwest Europe (NW), Southeast Europe (SE) and Alps (ALP). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.).|
The coastlines around the Gulf of Cádiz were affected by numerous tsunami events damaging infrastructure and causing countless human losses. A tsunami deposit at Barbate–Zahara de los Atunes, Spain, is located at various heights above mean sea level and shows several characteristics indicative of high-energy event deposition. This study uses sedimentology, foraminifera assemblage, magnetic susceptibility, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to support an interpretation of high-energy deposition and determine the deposit's transport mechanisms and sediment source. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating of the tsunami deposit reveals ages of ~ 4000 BP and does not support the AD 1755 Lisbon event as suggested in former publications.
|Figure 2: Population transformations in Europe. (a) PCA analysis, (b) ADMIXTURE|
analysis. The full ADMIXTURE analysis including present-day humans is shown in
Extended Data Fig. 1.
Annotations in red by me.
|Figure S5.2: PCA analysis with ancient individuals projected onto the variation of the|
Previous mitochondrial DNA analyses on ancient European remains have suggested that the current distribution of haplogroup H was modeled by the expansion of the Bell Beaker culture (ca 4,500–4,050 years BP) out of Iberia during the Chalcolithic period. However, little is known on the genetic composition of contemporaneous Iberian populations that do not carry the archaeological tool kit defining this culture. Here we have retrieved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 19 individuals from a Chalcolithic sample from El Mirador cave in Spain, dated to 4,760–4,200 years BP and we have analyzed the haplogroup composition in the context of modern and ancient populations. Regarding extant African, Asian and European populations, El Mirador shows affinities with Near Eastern groups. In different analyses with other ancient samples, El Mirador clusters with Middle and Late Neolithic populations from Germany, belonging to the Rössen, the Salzmünde and the Baalberge archaeological cultures but not with contemporaneous Bell Beakers. Our analyses support the existence of a common genetic signal between Western and Central Europe during the Middle and Late Neolithic and points to a heterogeneous genetic landscape among Chalcolithic groups.
|Annotated version of fig. 2 |
Figure 2. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup frequency for 21 ancient European samples.
This study: El Mirador (MIR). Published prehistoric cultures : Hunter-gatherer central (HGC), Linear Pottery culture (LBK), Rössen culture (RSC), Schöningen group (SCG), Baalberge culture (BAC), Salzmünde culture (SMC), Bernburg culture (BEC), Corded Ware culture (CWC), Bell Beaker culture (BBC), Unetice culture (UC), Funnel Beaker culture (FBC), Pitted Ware culture (PWC), Hunter-Gatherer south (HGS), (Epi) Cardial (CAR), Neolithic Portugal (NPO), Neolithic Basque Country and Navarre (NBQ), Treilles culture (TRE), Hunter-gatherer east (HGE), Bronze Age Siberia (BAS), Bronze Age Kazakhstan (BAK).
The complexity of the Beaker phenomenon in the Tagus estuary does not fit well with the model of three successive groups (International, Palmela and Incised Groups). The above seems to result from the nature of the settlements rather than from its chronology, as all three groups are present during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. Therefore while artefacts of the International Group predominate in the fortified sites, the Incised Group appears almost exclusively in open sites. The Palmela Group seems of minor importance, at least in the north region of the Tagus River estuary. The remarkable antiquity of Beaker pottery found in the FM hut at Leceia (which dates from the 2nd quarter of the 3rd millennium BC, re-confirmed by AMS dating) has parallels both in the North and South of Portugal, as well as in Spain. Thus we conclude that in the Lower Estremadura (one of the most important regions in Europe for the discussion of the origin and diffusion of Beaker “phenomenon”), the Beaker social formation with its own distinct cultural characteristics, coexisted with local Chalcolithic cultures, although never merged with them.
|Fig. 2. Leceia. Plan of the fortified settlement, with the|
location of the two Bell Beaker huts identified outside the walls.
On a more global approximation to the socio-cultural reality during the 2nd half of the 3rd millennium BC in Lower Estremadura, we may consider that if Beaker society was segmented with two clearly differentiated components, it may have corresponded nevertheless to a cultural entity as a whole with its own characteristics, at least in the region under appreciation.
The comparison of chronometric and archaeological results described above suggests that the first Beaker productions in the region of Lower Estremadura (between about 2700 and 2600 BC) coexisted, with lower interaction, with Chalcolithic populations that lived in some fortified sites, as shown by the chronology of the FM hut at Leceia. This is the same period in which fluted pottery typical of the Early Chalcolithic of Estremadura was still used inside this fortified settlement. But in other cases this coexistence was followed by interaction with the inhabitants of those already-existing fortified sites (as found in the fortified Chalcolithic settlement of Zambujal).
This interaction persisted throughout the whole Full Chalcolithic (represented by the characteristic “acacia-leaf” ceramic pattern) until the end of the 3rd millennium BC, as can be seen in almost all the fortified settlements of Lower Estremadura.
As modern humans migrated out of Africa, they encountered many new environmental conditions, including greater temperature extremes, different pathogens and higher altitudes. These diverse environments are likely to have acted as agents of natural selection and to have led to local adaptations. One of the most celebrated examples in humans is the adaptation of Tibetans to the hypoxic environment of the high-altitude Tibetan plateau1, 2, 3. A hypoxia pathway gene, EPAS1, was previously identified as having the most extreme signature of positive selection in Tibetans4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and was shown to be associated with differences in haemoglobin concentration at high altitude. Re-sequencing the region around EPAS1 in 40 Tibetan and 40 Han individuals, we find that this gene has a highly unusual haplotype structure that can only be convincingly explained by introgression of DNA from Denisovan or Denisovan-related individuals into humans. Scanning a larger set of worldwide populations, we find that the selected haplotype is only found in Denisovans and in Tibetans, and at very low frequency among Han Chinese. Furthermore, the length of the haplotype, and the fact that it is not found in any other populations, makes it unlikely that the haplotype sharing between Tibetans and Denisovans was caused by incomplete ancestral lineage sorting rather than introgression. Our findings illustrate that admixture with other hominin species has provided genetic variation that helped humans to adapt to new environments.
|Figure 3: A haplotype network based on the number of pairwise differences between the 40 most common haplotypes.|
The haplotypes were defined from all the SNPs present in the combined 1000 Genomes and Tibetan samples: 515 SNPs in total within the 32.7-kb EPAS1 region. The Denisovan haplotypes were added to the set of the common haplotypes. The R software package pegas23 was used to generate the figure, using pairwise differences as distances. Each pie chart represents one unique haplotype, labelled with Roman numerals, and the radius of the pie chart is proportional to the log2(number of chromosomes with that haplotype) plus a minimum size so that it is easier to see the Denisovan haplotype. The sections in the pie provide the breakdown of the haplotype representation amongst populations. The width of the edges is proportional to the number of pairwise differences between the joined haplotypes; the thinnest edge represents a difference of one mutation. The legend shows all the possible haplotypes among these populations. The numbers (1, 9, 35 and 40) next to an edge (the line connecting two haplotypes) in the bottom right are the number of pairwise differences between the corresponding haplotypes. We added an edge afterwards between the Tibetan haplotype XXXIII and its closest non-Denisovan haplotype (XXI) to indicate its divergence from the other modern human groups. Extended Data Fig. 5a contains all the pairwise differences between the haplotypes presented in this figure. ASW, African Americans from the south western United States; CEU, Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry; GBR, British; FIN, Finnish; JPT, Japanese; LWK, Luhya; CHS, southern Han Chinese; CHB, Han Chinese from Beijing; MXL, Mexican; PUR, Puerto Rican; CLM, Colombian; TSI, Toscani; YRI, Yoruban. Where there is only one line within a pie chart, this indicates that only one population contains the haplotype.
|Unmistakable evidence: beret-wearing Chinese!|
(humorously borrowed from Zubia-Qiao blog,
which is about real Basque-China relations)