Quantity over quality series.
Montserrat Hervella et al. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage. PLoS ONE 2015. Open access → LINK [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128810]
AbstractThe importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.
|Table 2. Haplotype (ht) and haplogroup (hg) mtDNA distribution resulting of the analysis of 62 ancient individuals from Romania.|
Please notice that, contrary to what the abstract says, I do not consider that Boian-Maritza and derived cultures belong to any second wave from Anatolia but rather to the wider Danubian (LBK-derived) Central European macro-culture. There was indeed a second wave from Anatolia (Halaf-related, it seems) but it mostly affected Greece, Macedonia and Serbia (Vinca, Dimini and related cultures). It briefly affected Bulgaria and Wallachia as well but this Danubian Boian-Maritza wave from the North neutralized its influence.
Gumelnita (Karanovo-Gumelnita) culture is particularly remarkable as civilization center of ancient Europe before the Kurgan (Indoeuropean) invasions. They were strongly involved in the earliest development of bronze metallurgy known to date (oddly enough considered "late Neolithic" in this study).
Rather than thinking that these cultures (Boian →→ Gumelnita) had a major effect on European genetics, I'd say that they reflect greater degree of "Europeanization", if anything. Anyhow the key marker here is (as usual) mtDNA H but in no case (except one Late Bronze individual) is H1, so we are rather talking of other less influential sublineages.