Nice new information on the genetics of Hordeum vulgare that may help to understand the Neolithic in Europe:
Huw Jones et al. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011. Open access.
These landraces are what was being grown traditionally before the advent of 20th century industrial homogenization of crops. The authors discern nine populations using STRUCTURE, however, as we can see in fig. 4 below, some of these populations are paraphyletic.
|Fig. 6 Geographical distributions of landraces for each of the barley populations|
identified at K = 9. (Note: Pop3 is restricted to the Alps, barely visible)
|Fig. 4 Neighbour-joining tree constructed from|
the microsatellite genotypes of all accessions
The authors inform us in greater detail of the characteristics of the various populations within the paper's "origins of the populations" section.